Download Gravitation, from Hubble length to the Planck length by Ignazio Ciufolini; et al PDF

By Ignazio Ciufolini; et al

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In 1959, Yilmaz [11] proposed using polar satellites to detect the gravitomagnetic field, thus avoiding the effects due to the non-sphericity of the Earth’s gravity field. In 1976, Van Patten and Everitt [12] proposed measuring the Lense–Thirring nodal precession using two drag-free, guided satellites, counterrotating in the same polar plane. The reason for proposing two counterrotating satellites was to avoid the error associated with the determination of the inclination. Copyright © 2005 IOP Publishing Ltd.

In 1959, Yilmaz [11] proposed using polar satellites to detect the gravitomagnetic field, thus avoiding the effects due to the non-sphericity of the Earth’s gravity field. In 1976, Van Patten and Everitt [12] proposed measuring the Lense–Thirring nodal precession using two drag-free, guided satellites, counterrotating in the same polar plane. The reason for proposing two counterrotating satellites was to avoid the error associated with the determination of the inclination. Copyright © 2005 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Thus, according to the previous calculation, there would be a relative time delay in the arrival time of the photons due to the Sun’s spin. Of course all the other travel time delays should be modelled and removed from the observed delays, in particular the time delay due to the dispersion of electromagnetic waves by the solar plasma. To derive the time delay due to the lensing galaxy of the Einstein Cross [44, 45], we assume a simple model for rotation and shape of the central object. Details about this model can be found in [46].

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