By A. C. Zeven, J. M. J. De Wet
Origins of agriculture and domestication of crops; Cardles of agriculture and areas of range: Chinese-Japanese zone; Indochinese-Indonedian quarter; Australian; Hindustani; primary Asian; close to Easter; Mediterranean zone; African; European-Siberian; South American zone; primary American and Mexico; North American; Species with out an pointed out zone.
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Extra resources for Dictionary of Cultivated Plants and Their Regions of Diversity: Excluding Most Ornamentals, Forest Trees and Lower Plants
Germany, Niedersachsen, 8. France, Nancy, 9. Germany, Bad Abbach, 10. Germany, Hessen, II. Austria, Alpengarten Villacher Alp, 12. Germany, Hessen, 13. France. Doubs, 14. Hungary. Budakalasz. 15. Hungary (unknown). 16. Hungary, Budapest. bNot detected. C Small amount of seed did not permit a reliable analysis. a 17 Atropa belladonna L. Table 4. Tropane alkaloid (hyoscyamine and scopolamine) content (g/kg dry wt) of leaves and roots of strains 6-16 and plants I-III of Atropa belladonna. (Simola et at.
1986) Shoot cultures Tropane alkaloids Benjamin et al. (1987) Root cultures infected with A. rhizogenes Atropine, scopolamine, cuscohygrine detected Jung and Tepfer (1987) Atropine and scopolamine detected Knopp et al. (1988) Callus culture Studied the effect of various factors on alkaloid production in calli, synthesis of atropine in stem callus Simola et al. (1988) Cell suspension Feeding experiments with precursors of tropane alkaloids (hygrine, tropinone, and tropic acid) Simola et al. (1989) aatropine = dl-hyoscyamine organogenesis was reported, up to seven Dragendorff-positive compounds including hyoscyamine and scopolamine were found.
Reinvestigations by Hartmann et al. (1986) showed a total of 13 alkaloids, mostly from the roots. The alkaloid pattern of root cultures was almost identical with the pattern of roots from the intact plant. Scopolamine, which is synthesized in the roots only, was detected in the medium. Cell suspensions of this species are able to produce small amounts of norhyoscyamine and 6-hydroxyhyoscyamine, but not scopolamine when fed with hyoscyamine (Hartmann et al. 1986). Interestingly, cell suspensions produced trace amounts of3-acetoxytropane and 3-tigloyloxytropane, which were not found in the intact plant.