By Ayman S., Ph.D. Mosallam
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Additional info for Design Guide for FRP Composite Connections
W/d ≤ 4), the fatigue failure is likely to occur away from the bolted joint. 2. , w/d ≥ 6), the likelihood of fatigue failure at the bolted joint increases rapidly. The washer size and thickness have a great impact on the fatigue life of bolted joints. The clamping pressure distribution that gradually diminishes from a high value directly under the bolt head to the outside edge of the washer appears to be advantageous. It should be noted that the above conclusions are based on investigating a specific type of composite, and it is expected that these conclusions may be changed for pultruded composite bolted joints.
A total of five joint specimens for each hole clearance were tested. For all tests, the stainless steel bolts were loosely tightened (fingertight) to eliminate the torque effect on the joint performance. Test results indicated that all joint specimens failed in bearing mode, as was intended. The bearing failure was characterized by the development of a progressive deformation with a continuous crippling of the glass fibers and crushing of the polyester matrix. From this study, the following points can be used as a guideline for the selection of bolt clearance for unidirectional pultruded composite bolted joints: • Selecting larger hole clearances for bolted pultruded joints will result in a reduction in the toughness of the joint.
2-6. Figure 2-7 shows the shear stress contours for bolted graphite/epoxy joints. The preferred fiber patterns for polymer composite laminates are shown in Fig. 2-8. As shown in this figure, shear-out failure does not occur within the shaded area of laminate pattern. Outside that area, the widespread splitting accompanies shear-out, and the low load level at which it occurs discourages the installation of fasteners in such highly orthotropic laminates. Therefore, to avoid catastrophic shear-out failures, the following guidelines are recommended for optimized fiber architecture for pultruded members: 1.