By Liya Nikolaevna Khakhina, Robert Coalson, Dr. Lynn Margulis, Professor Mark McMenamin
"Symbiogenesis", a time period first coined by way of the Russian botanist K.S. Merezhkovsky within the past due nineteenth century, is the evolution of recent existence kinds, from the actual union of alternative, once-independent companions. during this booklet Liya Khakhina lines the advance of the concept that in Russian and Soviety clinical literature, reviewing the contributions of Merezhkovsky, A.S. Famintsyn, B.M. Kozo-Polyansky and different favourite Russian scientists, to theories of symbiosis in evolution. This e-book presents extra details to English-speaking scientists at the historical past of the early improvement of symbiosis conception. The editors have written an creation to Khakhina's booklet (published within the Soviet Union in 1979) and feature additionally integrated an appendix by means of Donna Mehos concerning the American anatomist Ivan E. Wallin, whose concept of symbionticism - species beginning via the purchase of microbial symbionts - resembled the theories of the Russians.
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Additional info for Concepts of Symbiogenesis: A Historical and Critical Study of the Research of Russian Botanists (Bio-Origins Series)
2001; Dyer and Shugart 2002). As a consequence, the last chapter of this book develops some simple theory to predict how the interaction between plant and insect herbivore diversity impacts plant productivity. This theory is intended to act as a starting point for further theoretical research into the effects of insect biodiversity on ecosystem functioning. In addition to this theoretical work, the last chapter uses the conclusions derived by the authors of the book chapters to attempt an outline of the areas where further research into insect effects on ecosystem functioning is needed.
This enhanced exudation of carbon in the rhizosphere stimulates soil organisms. For example, Holland (1995) found that microbial biomass associated with Zea mays roots was maximized when plants were subjected to intermediate levels of herbivory by grasshoppers in a no-tillage cropping system, and proposed that increased root exudation due to defoliation was responsible. Any reduction in root biomass in response to defoliation may, in turn, lead to more dead roots for the soil microbial community to decompose (Seastedt et al.
1998a; Wardle 2002; Wardle and Bardgett, Chap. ). Data from diverse ecosystems indicate that more than 50 % of net primary production is commonly allocated to belowground plant parts (Coleman 1976), whilst values for particular plant species may approach 90 % (Andersen 1987). There is calculated to be between 330 and 4,000 g of root biomass to each square meter of soil, which, although of lower nutritional value than foliar tissue, would seem to be an important resource for insect herbivores. Although roots are the principal energy source for the majority of belowground consumers, a significant proportion of carbon allocated below ground may be directed to mycorrhizal fungi (Read 1991).