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The molecular biologist analyzes an extract from cells and trusts that the findings have some relationship to the previously living cells. The cloner, in contrast to some other cell biologists, asks what a nuclear transplant egg will become, not what it has been. The system is alive and the answers are provided by the living embryo that results from cell surgery. This is not to say that all cell biologists work with lifeless material. Tissue-culture studies of cell populations suspended in flasks of nutrient material, or growing as monolayers in flat dishes containing appropriate liquid cuisine, certainly relate to life.

There are two good reasons: one is that blastula cells are considered to be undifferentiated. Spemann, who did the primitive nuclear-transplantation experiments with constricted zygotes, exchanged patches of cells between young embryos. Even at the early gastrula stage (one stage later than the blastula), cells destined to form brain if left undisturbed form skin when transplanted to skin-forming areas, and cells destined to form skin when left in place form brain when surgically inserted in that portion of the embryo where brain is formed.

Not only were they engaged in tool making, but they were enucleating and transplanting nuclei in amoebae (Figure 5). Because of the relatively long history of experiments with cell microsurgery, it seems curious that Spemann, an internationally recognized Nobel laureate scientist, seemed unaware of how to get a nucleus into an enucleated egg. Vegetative propagation, a form of plant cloning, is old. Animal biology always lags behind botany. However, by the late 26 'A Fantastical Experiment" nineteenth century, the question that led to animal cloning was posed by Weismann and others, and preliminary answers were provided by blastomere separation.

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