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By J. J. Moore

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Since 1 atm partial pressure is also an arbitrary standard state the symbol Θ- is also often used when considering gaseous states. For this reason all standard states in this text will be denoted by the symbol ©• from now on. e. 3400 kJ of heat are released when 4 moles of solid Al react with 3 moles of gaseous -1 0 2 to produce 2 moles of solid A 1 2 0 3 . In this case the units are kJ not kJ m o l since all amounts differ from 1 mol. There are various ways in which enthalpy changes for reactions may be stated more specifically.

I. 1971 A New Guide to Modern Valency Theory. London: Longman. Duffy, J. A. 1974 General Inorganic Chemistry. London: Longman. S. E. 1978 Structural and Comparative Inorganic Chemistry. London: Heineman. G. G. 1978 Chemistry Data Book. London: Murray. G. B. 1971 General and Inorganic Chemistry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2 Metallurgical Thermodynamics Thermodynamics is the study of the energies involved in a reaction and, therefore, provides information regarding the driving force behind a reaction.

The energy spread of the 3s- and 3p-bands is such that they overlap, as shown in Fig. 15. e. between Ε and Ε + δ Ε. 16 shows a partly filled band in which electrons move extremely easily as the energy difference between Ε and Ε + 3E is imperceptible. However, there is a large energy gap between the partly filled band and a higher unfilled band so that for an electron to move across this gap a great deal of energy would be required. A similar representation for a non-metal is given in Fig. 17. In this case, all the energy levels in the lower band are completely filled and would need considerable energy to be supplied for an electron to be able to jump to the unfilled band.

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