By Reuben H. Karol
Following moving traits from remedial to preventive makes use of of grouting practices, this 3rd version covers all points of chemical grouting equipment and functions. This reference highlights new floor development options in addition to contemporary techniques in soil amendment and stabilization strategies. It considers advertisement choices to floor development, their relative benefits and downsides, and the engineering functions to which those tools are suitable. Revised and increased, this new version assesses the position of latest grouting recommendations within the containment of detrimental waste and introduces a variety of difficulties to demonstrate suggestions and facilitate instruction.
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Additional resources for Chemical grouting and soil stabilization
1 Layout of grout holes and test subareas. (From Ref. ) 376 with a 140-lb or 360-lb drop-hammer. The expendable bottom plug was separated from the grout pipe when the initial grout pressure was applied and the pipe was slightly raised. Grout was Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. injected through the bottom of the grout pipe. The grout pipe was raised 1 ft after each injection step. During each injection step, grout was injected until a predetermined volume of grout, equal to 25 percent of the volume of soil to be grouted, had been pumped or until the grouting pressure reached or exceeded 1 lb/in2 per foot of soil above the bottom of the grout pipe.
However, the grouting equipment did not have pressure control instrumentation. For this reason, the maximum pressure was translated into a corresponding ﬂow rate, and ﬂow control was used as the criterion. This process, of course, did not work well and negated the plan to pump without fracturing. While the pumping rate was closely controlled, the nonuniformity of the formation contributed to continual pressure ﬂuctuations, as shown in Fig. 2. Many times the peak of the ﬂuctuations exceeded the fracturing pressure, and fracturing did in fact occur extensively.
Of course, threerow patterns show up advantageously. 2 for complete details). The actual volume placed varied from 42% to 58%. The values are much higher than the porosity and indicate greater grout travel and/or fracturing (assuming the grout set up as scheduled). Either condition should result in more complete stabilization of the zones near the grout pipes. The actual horizontal spread of grout at elevation 390, as determined by excavation, is shown in Fig. 3. Only in subareas 6, 7, 8, 12, and 13 is stabilization complete around the grout holes.