Download Charging the Internal Combustion Engine (Powertrain) by Hermann Hiereth PDF

By Hermann Hiereth

This e-book covers all features of supercharging inner combustion engines. It information charging platforms and parts, the theoretical simple kin among engines and charging structures, in addition to format and assessment standards for most sensible interplay. assurance additionally describes contemporary reports in layout and improvement of supercharging platforms, more suitable graphical displays, and such a lot complicated calculation and simulation instruments.

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7). Due to the wide variety of designs, pure engine test cycles are used for medium and heavy trucks, some stationary, like ece R 49 (Fig. 8) and the new Euro-3-test (Fig. 9), some transient, like the Fige-3-transient test – an enhancement to the Euro-3-test – for engines with particulate filter or for gas engines (Fig. 10). Under these test conditions, the following statements generally valid can be formulated for the various combustion processes. Speed at max. torque Idle speed Engine speed Rated speed Fig.

Besides their quantity, the gas composition of the exhausting mass flows is also a relevant parameter for the gas exchange. In both four-stroke engines and, especially, in two-stroke engines, phases occur during the gas exchange, during which both the inlet and exhaust ports or valves are open. The scavenging process occurring during that period can be characterized using one of the following models (Fig. 15). – – – – Perfect displacement scavenging: The entering fresh gas displaces the exhaust gas present in the cylinder without mixing and without scavenging losses of fresh gas through the exhaust ports.

Since in the real engine, fresh gas losses may occur during the gas exchange (in the four-stroke engine and especially in the two-stroke engine, the inlet and outlet control devices are in part open simultaneously), the air delivery ratio alone cannot adequately describe the quality of the gas exchange. For that the volumetric efficiency λvol can be used, which compares the fresh gas mass captured in the cylinder – again related to ambient or intake manifold conditions – with the cylinder displacement, λvol = mfA /mth .

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