By G. M. Boyd
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Extra resources for Brittle Fracture in Steel Structures
Accordingly, other types of test using the full thickness of the material have been developed. Five of these are sketched at (a) to (e) in Fig. 1. Tipper Notched Tensile Test The notched tensile test due to Tipper7 is performed on specimens having the form sketched in Fig. e. uniform rectangular strips of full plate thickness (unless limited by the capacity of the testing machine) but in any case preferably having a width not less than 2\ times the thickness. Speci mens of steel which show normal ductility in the ordinary tensile test tend to break in a brittle manner if they are notched as shown.
Thus, the weld metal may be likened to a small chill casting sur rounded by a band of material which is first rapidly heated and then rapidly cooled, the peak temperature decreasing steeply across the HAZ. The following general consequences may directly result: 1. Introduction of defects not present in the parent metal. 2. Modification of the material adjacent to defects, so that its notch ductility is locally diminished. 42 BRITTLE FRACTURE IN STEEL STRUCTURES 3. A general reduction in the notch ductility of the heat affected zone.
Mode III, the tearing mode, as shown in Fig. 6(c), is the mode in which the two corresponding crack surfaces extend in approxi- CHARACTERISTICS AND MODES OF FRACTURE Mode I Mode II (a) (b) 33 Mode III (c) Fig. 6. Modes offracture mately the same plane and in a direction which is parallel to the line of the crack front. These three modes are sufficient to describe all forms of crack surface displacements. Mode I displacements result in a flat type of fracture surface perpendicular to the applied stress axis.