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INNER MANTLE Probably icy water, methane, and ammonia CONVENTIONAL PLANET SYMBOL ESSENTIAL DATA Average distance from the Sun 2,800,000,000 miles (4,500,000,000 km) Solar orbit (Neptunian year) 164 years 264 days Equatorial diameter 30,800 miles (49,500 km) Orbital speed ARAGO ADAMS /h) m k 0 0 (2,0 miles 8,700 km) 0 (14,00 LASSELL CHARACTERISTICS per h GALLE Uranus has faint rings of dust. When they were discovered from the Earth, astronomers thought the rings formed incomplete arcs. The ring names honor the first scientists to study Neptune.

5 6 7 8 9 Enlarged region 26 LEDA HIMALIA LYSITHEA ELARA ANANKE 160/63/67 CARME 54,000º F (30,000º C) OUTER MANTLE Made of liquid molecular hydrogen. The outer mantle merges with the atmosphere. GANYMEDE 3,270 MILES (5,268 KM) 15 PASIPHAE SINOPE IO 2,264 MILES (3,643 KM) CALISTO 2,986 MILES (4,806 KM) 302 322 335/8 16,160 miles (26,000 km) GREAT RED SPOT RINGS Jupiter's rings are made of dust from the planet's four inner moons. These rings were first seen in 1979 by the space probe Voyager 1 and later by Voyager 2.

It must be recognized that life on Earth would be impossible without the presence of the atmosphere—the colorless, odorless, invisible layer of gases that surrounds us, giving us air to breathe and protecting us from the Sun's harmful radiation. Although the atmosphere is approximately 435 miles (700 km) thick, it has no clear boundary and fades into space until it finally disappears. 68 THE EARTH AND THE MOON UNIVERSE 69 The Blue Planet AXIS INCLINATION T he Earth is known as the blue planet because of the color of the oceans that cover two thirds of its surface.

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