By Dennis Broeders
Simply because borders by myself can't cease abnormal migration, the eu Union is popping an increasing number of to inner keep watch over measures. via surveillance, member states objective to exclude abnormal migrants from societal associations, thereby discouraging their remain or deporting those people who are apprehended. And but, states can't expel immigrants who stay nameless. id has hence develop into key. Breaking Down Anonymity exhibits how electronic surveillance is turning into a major tool of id and exclusion regulations in the direction of abnormal migrants. To aid this declare, the examine charts coverage advancements in Germany and the Netherlands. It analyses either international locations' labour marketplace controls in addition to their detention and expulsion practices. additionally tested is the advance of a number of new ecu migration databases. Spanning the Continent, those info platforms create a brand new eu Union frontier - person who is electronic, biometric and ever-strengthening. This identify comes in the OAPEN Library - http://www.oapen.org.
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Additional info for Breaking Down Anonymity (IMISCOE Dissertations)
Most of the time, and for many reasons, people go along with surveillance’. The result is a circulation of various representations 46 BREAKING DOWN ANONYMITY of an individual in databases, which Gary Marx calls digital shadows. ‘(…) now, with so many new ways of collecting personal data and the growth of data banks, we see the rise of a shadow self based on images in distant, often networked computers’ (Marx 2005: 23). Haggerty and Ericson (2000: 613) point to roughly the same phenomenon when they speak of ‘data doubles’ that ‘(…) circulate in a host of different centres of calculation and serve as markers for access to resources, services and power in ways which are often unknown to its referent’.
Panopticon Europe is not a ‘factory of correction’. Its aim is not disciplining and correcting undesirable migrants. Panopticon Europe is designed as a ‘factory of exclusion and of people habituated to their status of the excluded’. (Engbersen 2001: 242) In other words, the state gathers information on the doings and whereabouts of irregular immigrants with the explicit aim to exclude them from both its territorial and membership associations. Post-panopticism then brings us to the realm of the surveillance state.
As such, in the case of irregular migration, the state more and more turns to modern surveillance techniques to achieve the double goal of identification and exclusion. Digitalised databases and biometric identifiers, two relatively new innovations, are being combined and seem to become the ‘technique of choice’ for governments wanting to restrict and control irregular migration. Databases are used for pre-emptive surveillance that aims to anticipate unwanted behaviour by means of classification and profiling (Salter 2005: 43) and for the identification and re-identification of terrorists, criminals and, increasingly, irregular migrants.