By R Orme, RA Fricker-Gates, MA Gates (auth.), Giuseppe Giovanni, Vincenzo Di Matteo, Ennio Esposito (eds.)
This publication offers a different and well timed multidisciplinary synthesis of our present wisdom of the anatomy, pharmacology, body structure and pathology of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons. the one chapters, written via best scientists of their fields, discover the existence cycle of dopaminergic neurons from their delivery to dying, the reason for Parkinson's disorder, the second one commonest and disabling within the aged inhabitants. however, the intracellular cascade of occasions resulting in dopamine phone loss of life continues to be unknown and, for that reason, remedy is symptomatic instead of preventive. The mechanisms through which changes reason neuronal demise, new healing methods and the most recent facts of a potential de novo neurogenesis within the SNc are reviewed and singled out in several chapters. This publication bridges simple technological know-how and medical perform and should organize the reader for the following couple of years, for you to definitely be eventful when it comes to the development of dopamine research.
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Additional info for Birth, Life and Death of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Substantia Nigra
2006). The advances in the therapeutic use of GDNF and neurturin depend on factors such as a better selection of patients, improvement in delivery methods, monitoring ligand release, and also the knowledge of basic aspects of their action mechanisms, including ligand-receptor interactions, intracellular signaling, and their expression pattern under both normal conditions and in Parkinsonian patients. It is known that both the subunits of the GDNF receptor complex, GFRa-1 and Ret, are robustly expressed in SN and VTA DA-neurons, and that GABA-ergic neurons in the SNR also express GFRa-1, suggesting a different action mechanism in these cells (Barroso-Chinea et al.
Understanding the normal expression pattern of neurotrophic factors and their receptors is critical to understanding their effects after being exogenously administered. Morphological studies carried out since the beginning of 1990s have provided interesting data on the expression of neurotrophic factors and their receptors in 27 the midbrain dopaminergic formation, but numerous aspects are still unknown or controversial. The GDNF family is a group of particular interest in midbrain DA-cells. It consists of four distant members of the transforming growth factor b superfamily: GDNF, neurturin, artemin, and persephin (Airaksinen et al.
1978; Spink et al. 1985). This can explain why we failed to find GAD and GABA immunoreactivity in midbrain DA-cell somata, and suggests that DA-cells expressing GAD65mRNA would synthesize GABA at terminal levels in response to local demands. Although GABA receptors have been found in different striatal cell types as well as in glutamatergic and dopaminergic terminals (Ikarashi et al. 1999; Rahman and McBride 2002; Seabrook et al. 1991; Smolders et al. 1995), the fact that striatal DA-terminals contain GABA receptors (Doherty and Gratton 2007; Ronken et al.