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By Damià Barceló (ed.), Peter-Diedrich Hansen (ed.)

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3 DNA Biosensors DNA’s structure is very sensitive to the influence of environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals [89, 90], polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) [91, 92] or polyaromatic 18 M. Farré et al. 5mgL−1 for naphthalene and salicylate [83] Optical immunosensor based on fluorescence Optical immunosensor based on fluorescence SPR immunosensor Sub ngL−1 [85] Immunosensor using electrochemical transduction Immunosensor using electrochemical transduction mgL−1 range [87] 10mgL−1 [88] Whole cell optical biosensor with immobilized bioreporter Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 [84] [11] [86] compounds (PAHs) [93].

The hardware requirements for wireless sensors include robust radio technology, a low-cost and energy-efficient processor, flexible signal inputs/outputs for linking a variety of sensors, a long-lifetime energy source, and a flexible, open source development platform. They also outline a number of software requirements for a wireless sensor node which include a small footprint capable of running on low-power processors, small memory requirement, and high modularity to aid software rescue. Thus, the basic components of a sensor node are a microcontroller, radio transceiver, set of transducers, and power source, and the software that runs on these nodes must be small and allow for efficient energy use.

115]. 4 Whole-Cell Biosensors A microbial biosensor is an analytical device that couples microorganisms with a transducer to enable rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of target analytes in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental monitoring, defence, food processing and safety. Earlier microbial biosensors used the respiratory and metabolic functions of the microorganisms to detect a substance that was either a substrate or an inhibitor of these processes. Recently, genetically engineered microorganisms based on fusing of the lux, gfp or lacZ gene reporters to an inducible gene promoter have been widely applied to assay toxicity and bioavailability.

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