By Adriel R. Bonilla
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Additional info for Antibiotic resistance : causes and risk factors, mechanisms and alternatives
Rhamnosus in a 14-year-old girl suffering from acute myeloid leukemia. The patient also suffered from enterocolitis, E. coli-septicemia, pancreatitis and pneumonia. Eighteen blood cultures were detectable with lactobacilli in the course of continued cytostatic and antibiotic treatment. Up to 109 colony forming units per gram of feces was detected. The Lactobacillus-bacteremia disappeared only after 13 months when the cytostatic therapy was terminated. , (2006) conducted a study on patients who received antimicrobial therapy during the two weeks prior to the onset of Lactobacillus bacteremia.
Although there are rare occurrences of probiotic infections, a zero-risk infection does not exist, especially in immunocompromised patients (Marteau, 2001). Some of the common infections among immunocompromised patients caused by antibiotic-resistant probiotics are infections caused by strains of Enterococcus faecalis, E. , 1999). It is difficult to assess the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in vivo and in vitro and it is even more difficult to state what level of gene transfer is acceptable (Marteau, 2001; Marteau and Shanahan, 2003).
Strains of lactobacilli can be resistant to vancomycin (intrinsic), cefazolin, penicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. , 1992). Cannon et al. (2005) conducted a study on the effects of probiotic infection that encompassed over 200 cases over a period of 53 years. As reported in their study, antibiotics such as penicillin or cephalosporin were used to treat infections caused by Lactobacillus spp. as monotherapy, or penicillin combined with an aminoglycoside for a synergistic effect.