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This rigorously compiled re-creation brings jointly chapters from many of the world's major specialists in plant secondary metabolism. thoroughly revised and taken correct modern with a lot new info, this quantity is an important buy for complex scholars, researchers and pros in biochemistry, body structure, molecular biology, genetics, plant sciences, agriculture, drugs, pharmacology and pharmacy, operating within the educational and business sectors, together with these operating within the pesticide and pharmaceutical industries. Libraries in all universities and examine institutions the place those matters are studied and taught will desire copies of this glorious quantity on their cabinets.
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Additional info for Annual Plant Reviews, Biochemistry of Plant Secondary Metabolism (Volume 40, 2) (2nd Edition)
Thus, AtGSTF would denote a phi dass GST from Arabidopsis thaliana. Finally, each GST subunit is assigned a number, based on the dustering of the genes from that GST dass where genome organisation is known, or if not known, on the order of discovery (Wagner et al. 2002). Since GSTs are dimeric proteins composed of either identical or distinct subunits derived from the same dass, this sys- 20 R. Edwards and D. P. Dixon tem can uniquely identify all potential GST enzymes. For example, AtGSTF2-2 is a homodimer from Arabidopsis of phi number 2 subunits, while AtGSTF2-3 is the corresponding heterodimer composed of phi subunits 2 and 3.
Similar insights into the mechanism whereby GSTs define herbicide selectivity have been determined when the role of these enzymes in herbicide resistance in weeds have been examined. In Abutilon theophrasti, the resistance of a biotype toward the chloro-s-triazine atrazine was found to be due to the selective enhanced expression of isoenzymes that detoxified this herbicide (Anderson and Gronwald 1991). Similarly, in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides) populations showing cross resistance to phenylurea and aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides contained high er levels of GSTs than a herbicide-susceptible population (Cummins et al.
In addition very recent studies have shown that a GSTU is essential in the UV-signalling in parsley, suggesting that these proteins also play important roles in plant signalling (LoyaH et al. 2000). The best studied GST involved in signaHing is the human pi dass GST hGSTP. Under normal conditions, this enzyme has been shown to bind jun Metabolism by Glutathione S-Transferases 37 kinase, inhibiting its phosphorylating activity. Stress invoked by treatment with UV or H 2 0 2 causes multimerisation ofhGSTP, which ameliorates its inhibition of jun kinase.