By K. Feste
What coverage is better for the us to minimize the specter of Islamic extremist terrorism? contemporary American presidents have utilized substitute clash answer techniques. Clinton practiced clash avoidance, conversing difficult yet not often retaliating opposed to anti-American terrorist assaults. G. W. Bush followed a fighter process and the worldwide struggle on Terrorism and armed forces interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq replicate this process. Obama brought a 3rd replacement: challenge fixing and increasing peaceable overtures whereas maintaining resistance. Will the method be successful? Feste analyzes presidential rhetoric on counterterrorism coverage in the course of the lens of factor framing, enemy aggression, self -hardship, and victimization expressed in a number of speeches brought by way of those leader executives to spotlight and examine their clash answer options.
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Additional info for America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama (The Evolving American Presidency)
The more intense threats are defined as touching vital interests directly posing to destroy basic features defining a state’s existence. An example: nuclear armed terrorists determined to use their weapons of mass destruction. Threats of greater scope can effectively disrupt a wider range of political and social activities in a wider range of conditions, with adverse influences at many levels. Example: clandestine terrorist group infiltration into schools, prisons, military organizations, and government bureaucracies.
How leaders attempt to sell and maintain risky status quo changing policies to their domestic constituencies is examined by Mackiewicz-Wolfe (2005) through a framing lens. Candidate George W. Bush publicly announced during his 2000 election campaign, and within the first eight months in office, that he would promote a more retrenched foreign policy while in office, seeking to avoid the openended military engagements pursued by his predecessor, Bill Clinton. -led invasions into Afghanistan and Iraq.
Reframing means taking whatever an opponent says and directing it or deflecting it to ensure a conflict escalation pattern does not increase in intensity. A frame or “frame of reference” is a complex schema of unquestioned beliefs, values, and worldviews used to infer meaning from observed events. If any part of that frame is changed (hence reframed), then the meaning that is inferred may change. To reframe requires parties to step back from what is being said and done and consider the frame, or lens through which this reality is being created to understand the unspoken assumptions, including beliefs and schema that are being used.