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By Chun - Zhu Li

During the last decade, vast study has been performed as regards to coal as one of many world's major strength resources. the present and destiny prestige of this source is a subject of substantial curiosity to the biggest global economies, together with the U.S., Japan, China and Europe.

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Moreover, the O-H bond stretching absorption band provides information of hydrogen bonds occurring between O-H groups. However, it seems difficult to obtain quantitative FT-IR spectral information about O-H bond stretching by using conventional KBr pellet methods or even DRIFT techniques with KBr as the diluent of coal sample. Firstly, the main difficulty comes from a requirement of complete removal of moisture from not only coal particles but also KBr pellets (particles) and the gas phase [105].

1 mmol g ' coal respectively [94]. 9 for treatment temperatures of 50, 200 and 250°C respectively. 13 represent the model prediction, appearing to agree reasonably well with the experimental data. They concluded [123,124] that, while the total amount of carboxyl groups decreased with increasing temperature, the mean pK^ value remained unchanged. 13 (right). More recently, Murakami and co-workers [126] re-examined the acidity distribution in a set of heat-treated Loy Yang brown coal samples. Rather than assuming the acidity (pKa) in a brown coal to follow a Gaussian distribution as discussed above, they used several Gaussian distributions to describe the acidity distribution [126].

5 47 structure and Properties The spectra in the carbonyl stretching region (1850 - 1500 cm"^) were curve-fitted with 7 bands at 1760 cm'^ (R-COOAr), 1735 cm"^ (R-COOR', Ar-COOAr' ArCOOR), 1700 cm"' (-COOH, Ar-COOR), 1670 cm"' (ketonic structure), 1620 cm'\ 1570 cm"' and 1500 cm"' [104]. The latter three bands are associated with the aromatic ring stretching vibrations. 6 Peaks for the deconvolution of '^C NMR spectra of coal. 5 L72 ~ H75 80 84 89 <10 <10 <10 9 7 4 R-0 56 70 93 16-18 16-18 16-18 100 105 L114~H116 124 <10 5 <13 <12 Ar-H Ar-C or Ar-H 101 113 126 140 16-18 16-18 16-18 16-18 131 L140~H141 12 <12 Ar-C L145~H146 L150~H153 160 <12 <14 <14 Ar-0 153 167 15-16 15-16 175 180 15 15 COOH 178 187 12-15 12-15 200 L250 ~ H300 15 <20 C=0 202 12-15 OCH3 R-OH R-O-R 48 Chapter 2 (extinction coefficients) for the absoq^tion band are uniform across the samples studied.

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