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By John Farndon

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These ships were rarely more thnn 20-30 long and weighed under 150 tonnes. But they could cope with rough seas and head imo the wind, so could sail in 11I0St directions. They were also fast - vital when crossing vast oceans. Big square sails on the fore and main masts filled like parachutes for high-speed sailing A lookout in the crow's nest often saw new land first 111 A triangular lateen sail on the mizzen (rear) mast helped the ship sail into the wind and manoeuvre along coasts • gave extra storm protection and extra accommoda tion • • • • • • • • • • , 52 The caravel's strong deck was a platform for guns and made it very storm-proof The caravel had a deep, narrow hull and a strong, straight keel for speed and stability A small poop (raised deck) held the captain's cabin 1000 Facts on Modern History • ••• • • • ••••••••• ••••••••••••• ••• • At first, they tried to go round Africa, and voyages ventured down Africa's unknown west coast.

The Hanseatic League set up special areas in cities across north Europe and controlled most trading routes. The League also put financial pressure on kings and lords to keep them at peace, and not to disrupt trade. • Hanseatic merchants brought raw materials, spices and silks from eastern Europe and traded them for cloth, linen, silverware and woollen clothes from the west. 1000 Facts on Modern History ~ Riclles FOIII tIle Hn/1seotic traders Ileiped H(lIl1burg build n grent wthedml i/1 tile Middle Ages.

Monasteries were the places where the poor went for welfare and they were also the only hospitals. • Monasteries were places for scholars to study. They were the only libraries. Most great works of medieval art, literature and scholarship came from monasteries. 6. Like most English monasteries, the great 12th-century Cistercian monastery at Tllllcm III II/lib 11'115 IICSIW)'CII iJ)' ficllr)' \'111. 40 1000 Facts on Modern History • Monasteries were great landowners with immense power and wealth.

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